Kurt Cobain: Nine Memorable Quotes from the Nirvana Frontman

Heart rate variability (HRV) is the physiological phenomenon of variation in the time interval between heartbeats. It is measured by the variation in the beat-to-beat interval.

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Or, Lies, Damned Lies and Quote Mines

Kurt Cobain was a rocker, guitarist, diarist and visual artist—and (somewhat reluctantly) an icon of a generation. Despite his relatively brief time in the public eye, the Nirvana frontman was.

Liver cirrhosis is associated with decreased HRV. Decreased HRV in patients with cirrhosis has a prognostic value and predicts mortality. Loss of HRV is also associated with higher plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and impaired neurocognitive function in this patient population.

HRV is decreased in patients with sepsis. Loss of HRV has both diagnostic and prognostic value in neonates with sepsis. Patients with chronic complete high cervical spinal cord lesions have intact efferent vagal neural pathways directed to the sinus node. However, an LF component can be detected in HRV and arterial pressure variabilities of some tetraplegic patients. Thus, the LF component of HRV in those without intact sympathetic inputs to the heart represent vagal modulation.

Patients victim of sudden cardiac death have been found to have lower HRV than healthy individuals. HRV correlates with the progression of disease and outcome of cancer patients, according to a systematic review of published studies.

Interventions that augment HRV may be protective against cardiac mortality and sudden cardiac death. Although the rationale for changing HRV is sound, it also contains the inherent danger of leading to the unwarranted assumption that modification of HRV translates directly into cardiac protection, which may not be the case. Despite the growing consensus that increases in vagal activity can be beneficial, it is not as yet known how much vagal activity or HRV as a marker has to increase in order to provide adequate protection.

Despite the observation of statistically significant increases, the actual changes are very modest. Data exist for several antiarrhythmic drugs. Flecainide and propafenone but not amiodarone were reported to decrease time domain measures of HRV in patients with chronic ventricular arrhythmia. A larger study confirmed that flecainide, also encainide and moricizine, decreased HRV in post-MI patients but found no correlation between the change in HRV and mortality during follow-up.

Thus, some antiarrhythmic drugs associated with increased mortality can reduce HRV. However, it is not known whether these changes in HRV have any direct prognostic significance. Low-dose muscarinic receptor blockers, such as atropine and scopolamine, may produce a paradoxical increase in vagal effects on the heart, as suggested by a decrease in heart rate. In addition, scopolamine and low dose atropine can markedly increase HRV. However, though the heart rate slowing in proportional to the low dose of atropine, the increase in HRV varies widely across and within individuals.

This suggests that even for vagal activity to the heart, HRV may be a limited marker. HRV was higher 90 minutes after thrombolysis in the patients with patency of the infarct-related artery. However, this difference was no longer evident when the entire 24 hours were analyzed. Exercise training may decrease cardiovascular mortality and sudden cardiac death.

Regular exercise training is also thought to modify cardiac autonomic control. Individuals who exercise regularly have a 'training bradycardia' i. The technique called resonant breathing biofeedback teaches how to recognize and control involuntary heart rate variability. A randomized study by Sutarto et al.

One study that surveyed the physiological effects of playing Native American flutes found a significant HRV increase when playing both low-pitched and high-pitched flutes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The American Journal of Cardiology. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology. International Journal of Psychophysiology.

Journal of Applied Physiology. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use". Innys, Manby and Woodward. Accessed via Version cached by Google on on Computers in Biology and Medicine. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science.

Statistical Mechanics and its Applications. American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology.

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Trivia Director Voyles' greeting to Darby Shaw, "So you're the little lady that started this great brouhaha", is likely an allusion to President Lincoln's famous apocryphal greeting to Harriet Beecher Stowe who wrote "Uncle Tom's Cabin":