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Fin de siècle maandag 19 november | Auteur: Guido Barthels De periode tussen het einde van de 19de eeuw en het begin van de eerste Wereldoorlog werd ook wel fin de siècle genoemd.

De RSI stijgt sneller dan de koers.

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Die Nutzung der zur Verfuegung gestellten Informationen zu Handelszwecken ist ausdruecklich nicht gestattet. The next year, his mother married Terry Keith Armstrong, a wholesale salesman, who adopted Lance that year. Eddie Gunderson died in At the age of 12, Armstrong started his sporting career as a swimmer at the City of Plano Swim Club and finished fourth in Texas state 1,meter freestyle.

He stopped swimming-only races after seeing a poster for a junior triathlon , called the Iron Kids Triathlon, which he won at age Armstrong's total points in as an amateur were better than those of five professionals ranked higher than he was that year. At 16, Lance Armstrong became a professional triathlete and became national sprint-course triathlon champion in and at 18 and 19, respectively.

In Armstrong turned professional with the Motorola Cycling Team , the successor of 7-Eleven team. In , Armstrong won 10 one-day events and stage races, but his breakthrough victory was the World Road Race Championship held in Norway. He was 97th in the general classification when he retired after stage He is alleged by another cyclist competing in the CoreStates Road Race to have bribed that cyclist so that he would not compete with Armstrong for the win.

Armstrong's successes were much the same in However, he was able to compete for only five days in the Tour de France. In the Olympic Games , he finished 6th in the time trial and 12th in the road race. Joining him in signing contracts with the French team were teammates Frankie Andreu and Laurent Madouas. Two months later, in October , he was diagnosed with advanced testicular cancer. On October 2, , at age 25, Armstrong was diagnosed with stage three advanced testicular cancer embryonal carcinoma.

But with the kind of cancer he had, with the x-rays, the blood tests, almost no hope. After receiving a letter from Steven Wolff, an oncologist at Vanderbilt University, [33] Armstrong went to the Indiana University medical center in Indianapolis [34] and decided to receive the rest of his treatment there. The standard treatment for Armstrong's cancer was a "cocktail" of the drugs bleomycin , etoposide , and cisplatin or Platinol BEP.

The first chemotherapy cycle that Armstrong underwent included BEP, but for the three remaining cycles, he was given an alternative, vinblastine etoposide , ifosfamide , and cisplatin VIP , to avoid lung toxicity associated with bleomycin. Armstrong's primary oncologist there was Craig Nichols. Shapiro, [39] a professor of neurosurgery at Indiana University. Armstrong's final chemotherapy treatment took place on December 13, Shortly afterward he was told that his contract with the Cofidis team had been cancelled.

By January , Armstrong was engaged in serious training for racing, moving to Europe with the team. Before his cancer treatment, Armstrong had participated in four Tour de France races, winning two stages. In , he won the eighth stage and in ; he took stage 18 which he dedicated to teammate Fabio Casartelli who had crashed and died on stage Armstrong dropped out of the Tour after the fifth stage after becoming ill, a few months before his diagnosis.

In he won the Tour de France, including four stages. He beat the second place rider, Alex Zülle , by 7 minutes 37 seconds. However, the absence of Jan Ullrich injury and Marco Pantani drug allegations meant Armstrong had not yet proven himself against the biggest names in the sport. Stage wins included the prologue, stage eight, an individual time trial in Metz , an Alpine stage on stage nine, and the second individual time trial on stage In , Ullrich and Pantani returned to challenge Armstrong.

The race began a six-year rivalry between Ullrich and Armstrong and ended in victory for Armstrong by 6 minutes 2 seconds over Ullrich. Armstrong took one stage in the Tour, the second individual time trial on stage In , Armstrong again took top honors, beating Ullrich by 6 minutes 44 seconds.

In , Ullrich did not participate due to suspension, and Armstrong won by seven minutes over Joseba Beloki. The pattern returned in , Armstrong taking first place and Ullrich second. Only a minute and a second separated the two at the end of the final day in Paris. Postal won the team time trial on stage four, while Armstrong took stage 15, despite having been knocked off on the ascent to Luz Ardiden , the final climb, when a spectator's bag caught his right handlebar.

Ullrich waited for him, which brought Ullrich fair-play honors. In , Armstrong finished first, 6 minutes 19 seconds ahead of German Andreas Klöden. Ullrich was fourth, a further 2 minutes 31 seconds behind. Armstrong won a personal-best five individual stages, plus the team time trial. He became the first biker since Gino Bartali in to win three consecutive mountain stages; 15, 16, and The individual time trial on stage 16 up Alpe d'Huez was won in style by Armstrong as he passed Ivan Basso on the way despite having set out two minutes after the Italian.

He won the final individual time trial, stage 19, to complete his personal record of stage wins. In , Armstrong was beaten by American David Zabriskie in the stage 1 time trial by two seconds, despite having passed Ullrich on the road. His Discovery Channel team won the team time trial, while Armstrong won the final individual time trial.

But still, the American champion handled them well, maintained his lead and, on some occasions, increased it. Another record achieved that year was that Armstrong completed the tour at the highest pace in the race's history: Armstrong announced on September 9, , that he would return to pro cycling with the express goal of participating in the Tour de France. UCI rules say a cyclist has to be in an anti-doping program for six months before an event, but UCI allowed Armstrong to compete.

When the official arrived, Armstrong claims he asked—and was granted—permission to take a shower while Bruyneel checked the official's credentials. On July 7, in the fourth stage of the Tour de France , Armstrong narrowly failed to win the yellow jersey after his Astana team won the team time trial. On July 21, , Armstrong announced that he would return to the Tour de France in He made his European season debut at the Vuelta a Murcia finishing in seventh place overall. However, he crashed outside Visalia early in stage 5 of the Tour of California and had to withdraw from the race.

He rallied for the brutal Pyreneean stage 16, working as a key player in a successful break that included teammate Chris Horner. He finished his last tour in 23rd place, 39 minutes 20 seconds behind former winner Alberto Contador. In October, he announced the end of his international career after the Tour Down Under in January He stated that after January , he will race only in the U.

Armstrong announced his retirement from competitive cycling 'for good' on February 16, , while still facing a US federal investigation into doping allegations. Armstrong has recorded an aerobic capacity of Armstrong revolutionized the support behind his well-funded teams, asking sponsors and suppliers to contribute and act as part of the team.

For much of his career, Armstrong faced persistent allegations of doping. Armstrong has been criticized for his disagreements with outspoken opponents of doping such as Paul Kimmage [72] [73] and Christophe Bassons. Bassons wrote a number of articles for a French newspaper during the Tour de France which made references to doping in the peloton.

Subsequently, Armstrong had an altercation with Bassons during the Tour de France where Bassons said Armstrong rode up alongside on the Alpe d'Huez stage to tell him "it was a mistake to speak out the way I Bassons do and he Armstrong asked why I was doing it.

I told him that I'm thinking of the next generation of riders. Then he said 'Why don't you leave, then? Armstrong confirmed the story. On the main evening news on TF1 , a national television station, Armstrong said, "His accusations aren't good for cycling, for his team, for me, for anybody.

If he thinks cycling works like that, he's wrong and he would be better off going home". Armstrong continued to deny the use of illegal performance-enhancing drugs for four more years, describing himself as the most tested athlete in the world. Armstrong was criticized for working with controversial trainer Michele Ferrari.

Ferrari claimed that he was introduced to Lance by Eddy Merckx in Though Ferrari was banned from practicing medicine with cyclists by the Italian Cycling Federation , according to Italian law enforcement authorities, Armstrong met with Ferrari as late as in a country outside Italy.

Michele Ferrari in masterminding Armstrong's Tour de France success". According to the USADA report, Armstrong paid Ferrari over a million dollars from to , countering Armstrong's claim that he severed his professional relationship with Ferrari in The report also includes numerous eyewitness accounts of Ferrari injecting Armstrong with EPO on a number of occasions. In , reporters Pierre Ballester and David Walsh published a book alleging Armstrong had used performance-enhancing drugs L.

Another figure in the book, Steve Swart , claims he and other riders, including Armstrong, began using drugs in while members of the Motorola team, a claim denied by other team members. Among the allegations in the book were claims by Armstrong's former soigneur Emma O'Reilly that a backdated prescription for cortisone had been produced in to avoid a positive test. A urine sample at the Tour de France showed traces of corticosteroid. A medical certificate showed he used an approved cream for saddle sores which contained the substance.

What are we going to do? According to O'Reilly, the solution was to get one of their compliant doctors to issue a pre-dated prescription for a steroid-based ointment to combat saddle sores. He said she would have known if Armstrong had saddle sores as she would have administered any treatment for it.

O'Reilly said that Armstrong told her: Armstrong sued for libel, and the paper settled out of court after a High Court judge in a pre-trial ruling stated that the article "meant accusation of guilt and not simply reasonable grounds to suspect. Armstrong that it never intended to accuse him of being guilty of taking any performance-enhancing drugs and sincerely apologized for any such impression. Official and Le Sale Tour The Dirty Trick , further pressing their claims that Armstrong used performance-enhancing drugs throughout his career.

On March 31, , Mike Anderson filed a brief [94] in Travis County District Court in Texas, as part of a legal battle following his termination in November as an employee of Armstrong. Anderson worked for Armstrong for two years as a personal assistant. In the brief, Anderson claimed that he discovered a box of androstenone while cleaning a bathroom in Armstrong's apartment in Girona , Spain.

Anderson stated in a subsequent deposition that he had no direct knowledge of Armstrong using a banned substance. Armstrong denied the claim and issued a counter-suit. The shaming of Lance Armstrong. In its suit, the paper is seeking a return of the original settlement, plus interest and the cost of defending the original case.

Armstrong immediately replied on his website, saying, "Unfortunately, the witch hunt continues and tomorrow's article is nothing short of tabloid journalism. The paper even admits in its own article that the science in question here is faulty and that I have no way to defend myself.

I have never taken performance enhancing drugs. Vrijman was head of the Dutch anti-doping agency for ten years; since then he has worked as a defense attorney defending high-profile athletes against doping charges. The recommendation of the commission's report was no disciplinary action against any rider on the basis of LNDD research.

In April , Michael Ashenden [ who? They have a number on them, but that's never linked to an athlete's name. The only group that had both the number and the athlete's name is the federation, in this case it was the UCI. The other way it could've got in the urine was if, as Lance Armstrong seems to believe, the laboratory spiked those samples.

Now, that's an extraordinary claim, and there's never ever been any evidence the laboratory has ever spiked an athlete's sample, even during the Cold War, where you would've thought there was a real political motive to frame an athlete from a different country.

There's never been any suggestion that it happened. Ashenden's statements are at odds with the findings of the Vrijman report. In June , French newspaper Le Monde reported claims by Betsy and Frankie Andreu during a deposition that Armstrong had admitted using performance-enhancing drugs to his physician just after brain surgery in The testimony stated "And so the doctor asked him a few questions, not many, and then one of the questions he asked was And Lance said yes.

And the doctor asked, what were they? And Lance said, growth hormone , cortisone , EPO , steroids and testosterone. Armstrong suggested Betsy Andreu may have been confused by possible mention of his post-operative treatment which included steroids and EPO that are taken to counteract wasting and red-blood-cell-destroying effects of intensive chemotherapy.

Ashenden, a paid expert retained by SCA Promotions, told arbitrators the results painted a "compelling picture" that the world's most famous cyclist "used EPO in the '99 Tour. Ashenden's finding were disputed by the Vrijman report, which pointed to procedural and privacy issues in dismissing the LNDD test results.

The Los Angeles Times article also provided information on testimony given by Armstrong's former teammate, Swart, Andreu and his wife Betsy, and instant messaging conversation between Andreu and Jonathan Vaughters regarding blood-doping in the peloton. Vaughters signed a statement disavowing the comments and stating he had: Armstrong's legal representative Tim Herman stated in June: SCA knowingly and independently waived any right to make further claims to any of the money it paid.

The panel's decision was referred to the Texas th Civil District Court in Dallas on February 16, for confirmation. Armstrong's attorney Tim Herman stated that the panel's ruling was contrary to Texas law and expected that the court would overturn it.

The panel's decision said, in part, about Armstrong that, "Perjury must never be profitable" and "it is almost certainly the most devious sustained deception ever perpetrated in world sporting history. Armstrong issued a formal, public apology and agreed to pay SCA an undisclosed sum. In a series of emails in May , Floyd Landis admitted to doping and accused Armstrong and others of the same. Justice Department federal prosecutors led an investigation into possible crimes conducted by Armstrong and the U.

Postal Service Cycling Team. The Food and Drug Administration and federal agent Jeff Novitzky were also involved in the investigation. On February 3, , federal prosecutors officially dropped their criminal investigation with no charges.

When Novitzky was asked to comment on it, he declined. In February , a month after Armstrong admitted to doping, rather than filing criminal charges, the Justice Department joined Landis's whistle-blower lawsuit against him, to recover government funding given to Armstrong's cycling team. Further, he was accused of putting pressure on teammates to take unauthorized performance-enhancing drugs as well.

It also sought to ban him from participating in sports sanctioned by WADA for life. Armstrong chose not to appeal the ban, saying it would not be worth the toll on his family. After years of public denials, Armstrong reversed course and admitted doping in an interview with Oprah Winfrey in January While admitting in the interview to the things he did, he also said it was "absolutely not" true that he was doping in —10, and that the last time he "crossed the line" was in In , one of Armstrong's former teammates, the American Floyd Landis , whose Tour De France victory was nullified after a positive doping test, sent a series of emails to cycling officials and sponsors admitting to, and detailing, his systematic use of performance-enhancing drugs during his career.

The emails also claimed that other riders and cycling officials participated in doping, including Armstrong. Landis filed a federal whistleblower lawsuit against Armstrong under the federal False Claims Act.

The existence of the lawsuit, initially filed under seal, was first revealed by The Wall Street Journal in In January , US Justice Department officials recommended joining the federal lawsuit aimed at clawing back money from Armstrong. In April , documents from the AIC case were filed by lawyers representing Landis in relation to the whistleblower suit. He also named people who had transported or acted as couriers, as well as people that were aware of his doping practices.

In June , US district judge Robert Wilkins denied Armstrong's request to dismiss the government lawsuit stating "The court denies without prejudice the defendants' motion to dismiss the government's action as time-barred. The Department of Justice accused Armstrong of violating his contract with the USPS and committing fraud when he denied using performance-enhancing drugs.

The suit was settled for an undisclosed sum one day before Armstrong was scheduled to give a deposition under oath. Armstrong met Kristin Richard in June They married on May 1, , and had three children. The pregnancies were made possible through sperm Armstrong banked three years earlier, before chemotherapy and surgery.

Lance and Kristin Armstrong announced their divorce in , the same year that Lance began dating singer-songwriter Sheryl Crow. They announced their breakup in October In December , Armstrong announced that Hansen was pregnant with the couple's first child.

Although it was believed that Armstrong could no longer father children, due to having undergone chemotherapy for testicular cancer, this child was conceived naturally.

In the July issue of Outside magazine, Armstrong hinted at running for governor, although "not in '06". Bush , a Republican and fellow Texan, call themselves friends. Bush called Armstrong in France to congratulate him after his victory.

In August , Armstrong hinted he had changed his mind about politics. In an interview with Charlie Rose on PBS on August 1, , Armstrong pointed out that running for governor would require the commitment that led him to retire from cycling.

Also, in August , Armstrong said that he was no longer considering politics:. The biggest problem with politics or running for the governor—the governor's race here in Austin or in Texas—is that it would mimic exactly what I've done: Why would I want to go from pro cycling, which is stressful and a lot of time away, straight into politics?

Armstrong was co-chair of a California campaign committee to pass the California Cancer Research Act , a ballot measure defeated by California voters on June 5, In , Armstrong founded the Lance Armstrong Foundation , which supports people affected by cancer. He was the pace car driver of the Chevrolet Corvette Z06 for the Indianapolis In August , Armstrong headlined the inaugural charity ride "Pelotonia" in Columbus, Ohio, riding over miles on Saturday with the large group of cyclists.

He addressed the riders the Friday evening before the two-day ride and helped the ride raise millions for cancer research. He said the race was extremely difficult compared to the Tour de France. At the Championships Armstrong led for a time before crashing out on the bike and finishing in 23rd place. He finished with a time of 3: Croix 3rd [] before breaking through with victories at Ironman The name is a joking reference to his testicular cancer, with the name "Juan" being considered by some a homophone for "one" and "Pelota" being the Spanish word for "ball".

In Armstrong bought several million dollars of stock in the American bicycle component manufacturer SRAM Corporation , and has served as their technical advisor. Armstrong owns a small share of Trek Bicycle Corporation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the Australian politician, see Lance Armstrong politician. Armstrong before the Tour Down Under. History of Lance Armstrong doping allegations and Lance Armstrong doping case.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Several riders were banned and some also had their results stripped; some subsequently admitted to doping. UCI stated that "a cloud of suspicion would remain hanging over that period". And so, while noting that their decision "might appear harsh for those who rode clean", UCI decided "with respect to Lance Armstrong" that those seven Tours would have no official winner, rather than being allocated to other riders.

Armstrong made demands in return for testifying completely. In response to that, Armstrong refused to testify. It's All about the Bike. Retrieved May 12, Archived from the original on January 12, Retrieved November 10, Retrieved June 30, USADA report labels him 'a serial cheat ' ".

The New York Times. Retrieved August 23, Governing body strips American of Tour wins". Retrieved October 22, UCI takes decisive action in wake of Lance Armstrong affair".