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The need for a stabilization period has been demonstrated in mice, rats, guinea pigs, and goats; it is probably required for other species as well Drozdowicz and others ; Jelinek ; Landi and others ; Prasad and others ; Sanhouri and others ; Tuli and others ; Wallace On propositions, see the article on structured propositions in this encyclopedia. Quarantine is the separation of newly received animals from those already in the facility until the health and possibly the microbial status of the newly received animals have been determined.
Unique to the Sport was an all-metal rigid roof with three longitudinal grooves. A short-open-roof model was added a year later, in Replacing the original Nuova in , the D looks very similar to the Nuova, but there are two key differences. The D also features " suicide doors ". In New Zealand, where it was locally assembled by Torino Motors, the D was sold as the "Fiat Bambina" Italian for "baby" , a name that is still in use there to describe this car. Of all the performance-oriented models created by Karl Abarth, later known as Carlo Abarth , perhaps the esse esse is the best representation of the scorpion-branded firm's collaboration with Fiat.
Around 1, Fiat Abarth SS were produced and only are believed to remain. Abarth introduced its SS version in , after the previous presentation back in When compared to the production version of the , aesthetically the was virtually identical except for the logo, badge on the radiator grille and the coat of arms on both sides of the car.
The SS was the only version to feature flared arches and the need to raise the engine cover for extra stability and cooling. The OHV 2 valves per cylinder inline-two engine , exhaust pipe , head and valve-springs were upgraded and specially designed pistons and camshaft fitted.
The Giardiniera K on some markets estate version of the Fiat is the longest running model. The engine is laid under the floor of the boot to create a flat loading surface. The roof on this model also stretches all the way to the rear, not stopping above the driver and front passenger as it does in other models of the same period.
The Giardiniera also features " suicide doors " and was the only model to continue to use this door type into the s. In production was transferred to Desio where the Giardiniera was built by Fiat subsidiary Autobianchi. A panel van variant of the Giardiniera estate was offered as the Furgoncino. The F spans two periods of production, the D and the L. As such, it is the most frequently misidentified model. Between and the F carried the same badging as the D, but the two models are distinguishable by the positioning of their door hinges.
The D has " suicide doors ": While the F and L are mechanically very similar, the key differences are the bumpers the L has an extra chrome nudge bar and the interior the F interior is nearly identical to the original design while the L sports a much more modern look. Inside the dashboard was entirely covered in black anti-glare plastic material instead of being bare painted metal, and was fitted with a new trapezoid instrument binnacle replacing the round one used on all other models.
The steering wheel was black plastic with metal spokes. The door cards—upholstered in the same pleated pattern leatherette used on the seats—carried redesigned and relocated door handles and new door pockets. More storage space was provided in the form of a tray on the centre tunnel, which like the rest of the floor was covered in carpet rather than rubber mats. The last incarnation of the Fiat was the R model. The floor-pan which was from either the 'L', or later, the new It was also more comfortable, but more simply trimmed and equipped than before — the fuel gauge was omitted and only the low fuel indicator remained.
The R was also a stop-gap for Fiat prior to the launch of the Fiat , and when the new was launched, sales of the old Fiat R plummeted. It was sold alongside the Fiat for another two years before Fiat retired the Carrozzeria Ghia made a custom "Jolly" version of the inspired by the limited edition Fiat Jolly.
During the years in which it was produced the in Italy, Fiat designed and produced a US-market version of the car with prominent headlamps also used on the American Jolly. This car is rare today. First announced in May , Fiat previewed an all-new four-seat three-door hatchback model in March — fifty years after the first Fiat was presented. Numerous trim, equipment, and performance versions are offered with a convertible body style available starting in The is also offered in Abarth trim, with 1.
The Fiat automobile platform is the basis of the second-generation Ford Ka. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Effective preventive-medicine programs enhance the research value of animals by maintaining healthy animals and minimizing nonprotocol sources. These programs consist of various combinations of policies, procedures, and practices related to quarantine and stabilization and the separation of animals by species, source, and health status. Quarantine is the separation of newly received animals from those already in the facility until the health and possibly the microbial status of the newly received animals have been determined.
An effective quarantine minimizes the chance for introduction of pathogens into an established colony. The veterinary medical staff should have procedures for evaluating the health and, if appropriate, the pathogen status of newly received animals, and the procedures should reflect acceptable veterinary medical practice and federal and state regulations applicable to zoonoses Butler and others Effective quarantine procedures should be used for nonhuman primates to help limit exposure of humans to zoonotic infections.
Filoviral and mycobacterial infections in nonhuman primates have recently necessitated specific guidelines for handling nonhuman primates CDC , Information from vendors on animal quality should be sufficient to enable a veterinarian to determine the length of quarantine, to define the potential risks to personnel and animals within the colony, to determine whether therapy is required before animals are released from quarantine, and, in the case of rodents, to determine whether cesarean rederivation or embryo transfer is required to free the animals of specific pathogens.
Rodents might not require quarantine if data from the vendor or provider are sufficiently current and complete to define the health status of the incoming animals and if the potential for exposure to pathogens during transit is considered. When quarantine is indicated, animals from one shipment should be separated from animals from other shipments not necessarily from each other to preclude transfer of infectious agents between groups. Regardless of the duration of quarantine, newly received animals should be given a period for physiologic, psychologic, and nutritional stabilization before their use.
The length of time for stabilization will depend on the type and duration of animal transportation, the species involved, and the intended use of the animals. The need for a stabilization period has been demonstrated in mice, rats, guinea pigs, and goats; it is probably required for other species as well Drozdowicz and others ; Jelinek ; Landi and others ; Prasad and others ; Sanhouri and others ; Tuli and others ; Wallace Physical separation of animals by species is recommended to prevent interspecies disease transmission and to eliminate anxiety and possible physiologic and behavioral changes due to interspecies conflict.
Such separation is usually accomplished by housing different species in separate rooms; however, cubicles, laminar-flow units, cages that have filtered air or separate ventilation,.
In some instances, it might be acceptable to house different species in the same room, for example, if two species have a similar pathogen status and are behaviorally compatible.
Some species can have subclinical or latent infections that can cause clinical disease if transmitted to another species. A few examples might serve as a guide in determining the need for separate housing by species:. Bordetella bronchiseptica characteristically produces only subclinical infections in rabbits, but severe respiratory disease might occur in guinea pigs Manning and others Simian hemorrhagic fever Palmer and others and simian immunodeficiency virus Hirsch and others ; Murphey-Corb and others , for example, cause only subclinical infections in African species but induce clinical disease in Asian species.
Some species should be housed in separate rooms even though they are from the same geographic region. Squirrel monkeys Saimiri sciureus , for example, might be latently infected with Herpesvirus tamarinus, which can be transmitted to and cause a fatal epizootic disease in owl monkeys Aotus trivirgatus Hunt and Melendez and some species of marmosets and tamarins Saguinus oedipus, S.
Intraspecies separation might be essential when animals obtained from multiple sites or sources, either commercial or institutional, differ in pathogen status, e. All animals should be observed for signs of illness, injury, or abnormal behavior by a person trained to recognize such signs.
As a rule, this should occur daily, but more-frequent observations might be warranted, such as during postoperative recovery or when animals are ill or have a physical deficit. There might also be situations in which daily observations of each animal is impractical, for example, when animals are housed in large outdoor settings. Professional judgment should be used to ensure that the frequency and character of observation minimize risks to individual animals.
It is imperative that appropriate methods be in place for disease surveillance and diagnosis. Unexpected deaths and signs of illness, distress, or other deviations from normal in animals should be reported promptly to ensure appropriate. Animals that show signs of a contagious disease should be isolated from healthy animals in the colony.
If an entire room of animals is known or believed to be exposed to an infectious agent e. Methods of disease prevention, diagnosis, and therapy should be those currently accepted in veterinary practice. Diagnostic laboratory services facilitate veterinary medical care and can include gross and microscopic pathology, clinical pathology, hematology, microbiology, clinical chemistry, and serology. The choice of medication or therapy should be made by the veterinarian in consultation with the investigator.
The selected treatment plan should be therapeutically sound and, when possible, should cause no undesirable experimental variable. Subclinical microbial, particularly viral, infections see Appendix A occur frequently in conventionally maintained rodents but also can occur in facilities designed and maintained for production and use of pathogen-free rodents if a component of the microbial barrier is breached.
Examples of infectious agents that can be subclinical but induce profound immunologic changes or alter physiologic, pharmacologic, or toxicologic responses are Sendai virus, Kilham rat virus, mouse hepatitis virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and Mycoplasma pulinonis NRC la,b.
Scientific objectives of a particular protocol, the consequences of infection within a specific strain of rodent, and the adverse effects that infectious agents might have on other protocols in a facility should determine the characteristics of rodent health-surveillance programs and strategies for keeping rodents free of specific pathogens.
The principal method for detecting viral infections is serologic testing. Other methods of detecting microbial infections, such as bacterial culturing and histopathology and DNA analysis using the polymerase chain reaction PCR , should be used in combinations that are most suitable for specific requirements of clinical and research programs. Transplantable tumors, hybridomas, cell lines, and other biologic materials can be sources of murine viruses that can contaminate rodents Nicklas and others Appropriate attention to presurgical planning, personnel training, aseptic and surgical technique, animal well-being, and animal physiologic status during all phases of a protocol will enhance the outcome of surgery see Appendix A , ''Anesthesia, Pain, and Surgery".
The individual impact of those factors will vary according to the complexity of procedures involved and the species of animal used.
A team approach to a surgical project often increases the likelihood. A continuing and thorough assessment of surgical outcomes should be performed to ensure that appropriate procedures are followed and timely corrective changes instituted.
Modification of standard techniques might be desirable or even required for instance, in rodent or field surgery , but it should not compromise the well-being of the animals. In the event of modification, assessment of outcomes should be even more intense and might have to incorporate criteria other than obvious clinical morbidity and mortality.
Presurgical planning should include input from all members of the surgical team, including the surgeon, anesthetist, veterinarian, surgical technicians, animal care staff, and investigator. The surgical plan should identify personnel, their roles and training needs, and equipment and supplies required for the procedures planned Cunliffe-Beamer ; the location and nature of the facilities in which the procedures will be conducted; and preoperative animal-health assessment and postoperative care Brown and Schofield If a nonsterile part of an animal, such as the gastrointestinal tract, is to be surgically exposed or if a procedure is likely to cause immunosuppression, preoperative antibiotics might be appropriate Klement and others However, the use of antibiotics should never be considered as a replacement for aseptic procedures.
It is important that persons have had appropriate training to ensure that good surgical technique is practiced, that is, asepsis, gentle tissue handling, minimal dissection of tissue, appropriate use of instruments, effective hemostasis, and correct use of suture materials and patterns Chaffee ; Wingfield People performing and assisting in surgical procedures in a research setting often have a wide range of educational backgrounds and might require various levels and kinds of training before they participate in surgical procedures on animals.
For example, persons trained in human surgery might need training in inter species variations in anatomy, physiology, and the effects of anesthetic and analgesic drugs, or in postoperative requirements. Training guidelines for research surgery commensurate with a person's background are available ASR to assist institutions in developing appropriate training programs. In general, surgical procedures are categorized as major or minor and in the laboratory setting can be further divided into survival and nonsurvival.
Major survival surgery penetrates and exposes a body cavity or produces substantial impairment of physical or physiologic functions such as laparotomy, thoracotomy, craniotomy, joint replacement, and limb amputation. Minor survival surgery does not expose a body cavity and causes little or no physical impairment such as wound suturing; peripheral-vessel cannulation; such routine farm animal.
Minor procedures are often performed under less-stringent conditions than major procedures but still require aseptic technique and instruments and appropriate anesthesia. Although laparoscopic procedures are often performed on an "outpatient" basis, appropriate aseptic technique is necessary if a body cavity is penetrated. In nonsurvival surgery, an animal is euthanatized before recovery from anesthesia.
It might not be necessary to follow all the techniques outlined in this section if nonsurvival surgery is performed; however, at a minimum, the surgical site should be clipped, the surgeon should wear gloves, and the instruments and surrounding area should be clean Slattum and others Emergency situations sometimes require immediate surgical correction under less than ideal conditions.
For example, if an animal maintained outdoors needs surgical attention, movement to a surgical facility might pose an unacceptable risk to the animal or be impractical.
Such situations often require more-intensive aftercare and might pose a greater risk of postoperative complications. The appropriate course of action requires veterinary medical judgment. Aseptic technique is used to reduce microbial contamination to the lowest possible practical level Cunliffe-Beamer No procedure, piece of equipment, or germicide alone can achieve that objective Schonholtz Aseptic technique requires the input and cooperation of everyone who enters the operating suite Belkin ; McWilliams The contribution and importance of each practice varies with the procedure.
Aseptic technique includes preparation of the patient, such as hair removal and disinfection of the operative site Hofmann ; preparation of the surgeon. Specific sterilization methods should be selected on the basis of physical characteristics of materials to be sterilized Schofield Autoclaving and gas sterilization are common effective methods. Sterilization indicators should be used to identify materials that have undergone proper sterilization Berg Liquid chemical sterilants should be used with adequate contact times, and instruments should be rinsed with sterile water or saline before use.
Alcohol is neither a sterilant nor a high-level disinfectant Rutala In general, unless an exception is specifically justified as an essential component of the research protocol and approved by the IACUC, nonrodent aseptic surgery should be conducted only in facilities intended for that purpose.
Most bacteria are carried on airborne particles or fomites, so surgical facilities should be maintained and operated in a manner that ensures cleanliness and minimizes. In some circumstances, it might be necessary to use an operating room for other purposes.
In such cases, it is imperative that the room be returned to an appropriate level of cleanliness before its use for major survival surgery.
Careful surgical monitoring and timely attention to problems increase the likelihood of a successful surgical outcome. Monitoring includes checking of anesthetic depth and physiologic function and assessment of clinical signs and conditions. Maintenance of normal body temperature minimizes cardiovascular and respiratory disturbances caused by anesthetic agents Dardai and Heavner and is of particular importance.
The species of animal influences the components and intensity of the surgical program. The relative susceptibility of rodents to surgical infection has been debated; available data suggest that subclinical infections can cause adverse physiologic and behavioral responses Beamer ; Bradfield and others ; Cunliffe-Beamer ; Waynforth , that can affect both surgical success and research results.
Some characteristics of common laboratory-rodent surgery-such as smaller incision sites, fewer personnel in the surgical team, manipulation of multiple animals at one sitting, and briefer procedures-as opposed to surgery in larger species, can make modifications in standard aseptic techniques necessary or desirable Brown ; Cunliffe-Beamer Useful suggestions for dealing with some of the unique challenges of rodent surgery have been published Cunliffe-Beamer , Generally, farm animals maintained for biomedical research should undergo surgery with procedures and in facilities compatible with the guidelines set forth in this section.
However, some minor and emergency procedures that are commonly performed in clinical veterinary practice and in commercial agricultural settings may be conducted under less-stringent conditions than experimental surgical procedures in a biomedical-research setting. Even when conducted in an agricultural setting, these procedures require the use of appropriate aseptic technique, sedatives, analgesics, anesthetics, and conditions commensurate with the risk to the animal's health and well-being.
But they might not require the intensive surgical settings, facilities, and procedures outlined here. Presurgical planning should specify the requirements of postsurgical monitoring, care, and record-keeping, including the personnel who will perform these duties.
The investigator and veterinarian share responsibility for ensuring that postsurgical care is appropriate. An important component of postsurgical care is observation of the animal and intervention as required during recovery from anesthesia and surgery.
The intensity of monitoring necessary will vary with the species and the procedure and might be greater during the immediate anesthetic-recovery period than later in postoperative recovery. During the anesthetic-recovery period, the animal should be in a clean, dry area where it can be observed often by trained personnel. Particular attention should be given to thermoregulation, cardiovascular and respiratory function, and postoperative pain or discom-.
Additional care might be warranted, including administration of parenteral fluids for maintenance of water and electrolyte balance FBR , analgesics, and other drugs; care for surgical incisions; and maintenance of appropriate medical records. After anesthetic-recovery, monitoring is often less intense but should include attention to basic biologic functions of intake and elimination and behavioral signs of postoperative pain, monitoring for postsurgical infections, monitoring of the surgical incision, bandaging as appropriate, and timely removal of skin sutures, clips, or staples UFAW An integral component of veterinary medical care is prevention or alleviation of pain associated with procedural and surgical protocols.
Pain is a complex experience that typically results from stimuli that damage tissue or have the potential to damage tissue.
The ability to experience and respond to pain is widespread in the animal kingdom. A painful stimulus prompts withdrawal and evasive action. Pain is a stressor and, if not relieved, can lead to unacceptable levels of stress and distress in animals.
The proper use of anesthetics and analgesics in research animals is an ethical and scientific imperative. Fundamental to the relief of pain in animals is the ability to recognize its clinical signs in specific species Hughes and Lang ; Soma Species vary in their response to pain Breazile ; Morton and Griffiths ; Wright and others , 50 criteria for assessing pain in various species differ.
Some species-specific behavioral manifestations of pain or distress are used as indicators, for example, vocalization, depression or other behavioral changes, abnormal appearance or posture, and immobility NRC It is therefore essential that personnel caring for and using animals be very familiar with species-specific and individual behavioral, physiologic, and biochemical indicators of well-being Dresser ; Dubner ; Kitchen and others In general, unless the contrary is known or established it should be assumed that procedures that cause pain in humans also cause pain in animals IRAC The selection of the most appropriate analgesic or anesthetic should reflect professional judgment as to which best meets clinical and humane requirements without compromising the scientific aspects of the research protocol.
Preoperative or intraoperative administration of analgesics might enhance postsurgical analgesia. The selection depends on many factors, such as the species and age of the animal, the type and degree of pain, the likely effects of particular agents on specific organ systems, the length of the operative procedure, and the safety of an agent for an animal, particularly if a physiologic deficit is induced by a surgical or other experimental procedure.
Such devices as precision vaporizers and respirators. Some classes of drugs-such as sedatives, anxiolytics, and neuromuscular blocking agents-are not analgesic or anesthetic and thus do not relieve pain; however, they might be used in combination with appropriate analgesics and anesthetics. Neuromuscular blocking agents e. When these agents are used during surgery or in any other painful procedure, many signs of anesthetic depth are eliminated because of the paralysis.
However, autonomic nervous system changes e. If paralyzing agents are to be used, it is recommended that the appropriate amount of anesthetic be first defined on the basis of results of a similar procedure that used the anesthetic without a blocking agent NRC In addition to anesthetics, analgesics, and tranquilizers, nonpharmacologic control of pain is often effective NRC ; Spinelli Neuromuscular blocking drugs, as noted earlier, do not provide relief from pain.
They are used to paralyze skeletal muscles while an animal is fully anesthetized. They might be used in properly ventilated conscious animals for specific types of nonpainful, well-controlled neurophysiologic studies. However, it is imperative that any such proposed use be carefully evaluated by the IACUC to ensure the well-being of the animal because acute stress is believed to be a consequence of paralysis in a conscious state and it is known that humans, if conscious, can experience distress when paralyzed with these drugs NRC ; Van Sluyters and Oberdorfer Euthanasia is the act of killing animals by methods that induce rapid unconsciousness and death without pain or distress.
In evaluating the appropriateness of methods, some of the criteria that should be considered are ability to induce loss of consciousness and death with no or only momentary pain, distress, or anxiety; reliability; nonreversibility; time required to induce unconsciousness; species and age limitations; compatibility with research objectives; and safety of and emotional effect on personnel. Euthanasia might be necessary at the end of a protocol or as a means to relieve pain or distress that cannot be alleviated by analgesics, sedatives, or other treatments.
Protocols should include criteria for initiating euthanasia, such as degree of a physical or behavioral deficit or tumor size, that will enable a prompt.
Euthanasia should be carried out in a manner that avoids animal distress. In some cases, vocalization and release of pheromones occur during induction of unconsciousness.
For that reason, other animals should not be present when euthanasia is performed AVMA The selection of specific agents and methods for euthanasia will depend on the species involved and the objectives of the protocol. Generally, inhalant or noninhalant chemical agents such as barbiturates, nonexplosive inhalant anesthetics, and CO 2 are preferable to physical methods such as cervical dislocation, decapitation, and use of a penetrating captive bolt.
However, scientific considerations might preclude the use of chemical agents for some protocols. It is essential that euthanasia be performed by personnel who are skilled in methods for the species in question and that it be performed in a professional and compassionate manner. Death should be confirmed by personnel who can recognize cessation of vital signs in the species being euthanatized. Euthanatizing animals is psychologically difficult for some animal care, veterinary, and research personnel, particularly if they are involved in performing euthanasia repetitively or if they have become emotionally attached to the animals being euthanatized Arluke ; NRC ; Rollin ; Wolfle When delegating euthanasia responsibilities, supervisors should be aware of this as a potential problem for some employees or students.
Uneasiness among laboratory technicians. Recommended practices for traffic patterns in the surgical suite. Guidelines for training in surgical research in animals.
Role of the environment of the operating suite in surgical wound infection. Report of the AVMA panel on euthanasia. Operating room air quality. Pathological changes associated with ovarian transplantation.